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Multiple Intelligences

By incorporating into the learning experience a mixture of activities that meet the 8 different styles of learning ensures maximum effectiveness, input and retention.

There are 8 learning styles or intelligences as researched and published by Howard Gardner: Musical, Kinaesthetic, Mathematical / Logical, Visual / Spatial, Linguistic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Naturalist. In the following pages you can learn more about each intelligence and suggestions on how to develop these further.

Kinaesthetic Intelligence

Some people find that they are able to learn extremely well when they are involved in some form of physical activity rather than just sitting still. They may be extremely skilful with their hands, or they may be very physically skilled using their whole body. In either case such individuals are able to adapt these physical abilities towards many different kinaesthetic challenges. To some extent, Western culture often sees this ‘manual’ intelligence as of lesser value than other intelligences – however, it is clear that all of us would prefer our surgeon to excel in this intelligence!

Gardener defines the core components of Kinaesthetic Intelligence as the ability to use ones body in highly differentiated and skilled ways, for expressive as well as goal-directed purposes to work skilfully with objects, both those that involve fine motor movements of ones fingers and hands and those that exploit gross motor movements – thus encompassing the intricate kinaesthetic intelligence of the surgeon and the large motor kinaesthetic intelligence of the football player.

Individuals with strong kinaesthetic skills usually fall into one of the following two categories:-

  • Athletic Skill - Involved in, and skilled at athletic activities and other challenges involving whole body physical movement.
  • Physical Dexterity - The ability to use ones hands skilfully when working with objects. Perhaps the ability to be creative and expressive with ones body for learning, dancing or acting; or the ability to be dextrous in vehicle mechanics, surgery, sculpture or constructing things.

Each of us utilises a degree of Kinaesthetic Intelligence everyday; indeed 80% of what we communicate to others is non-verbal. It is true to say that many concepts can only truly be understood if we supplement or replace an explanation with a non-verbal element. To actually physically experience something for yourself allows for a clearer insight, a deeper understanding and a more lasting memory.

Develop Bodily Intelligence by:

Bodily intelligence involves both large motor activity (such as sport) and small dextrous activity (such as model building). To develop bodily intelligence it would be best to explore both aspects simultaneously – regardless of how unfit you may be.

Some suggestions regarding ways to develop large and small motor bodily intelligence could be:

  • Learn to juggle
  • Join a sports team
  • Put on a blindfold and have a friend lead you around to explore the environment with your hands
  • Take lessons in golf, swimming, tennis or gymnastics
  • Learn a martial art like aikido, judo or karate.
  • Exercise regularly and keep track of the idea that occur to you during sessions
  • Learn a craft such as woodworking, sewing, weaving or pottery
  • Build models
  • Walk on the curb, balance beams or low walls to improve your sense of balance
  • Play charades
  • Learn how to give a great massage
  • Help children with arts and crafts – the messier the better!
  • Develop your hand-eye co-ordination by bowling or tossing basketballs.
  • Take a class in acting or join a local amateur dramatic company
  • Learn a practical routine requiring physical grace such as the Japanese tea ceremony
  • Play video games that require the use of quick reflexes.
  • Take formal lessons in dance (modern, ballroom, etc)
  • Just put some music on and move!
  • Take up a ‘hands-on’ hobby such as gardening, cooking or model-building
  • Spend some time each day just discovering textures – feel things like the bark of a tree, sandpaper, silk, smooth stones or cool grass

To further develop your learning styles we strongly recommend the following:

howard gardner multiple intelligences Multiple Intelligences- Howard Gardner   

Howard Gardners brilliant conception of individual competence is changing the face of education today. In the ten years since the publication of his seminal Frames of Mind , thousands of educators, parents, and researchers have explored the practical implications of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory the powerful notion that there are separate human capacities, ranging from musical intelligence to the intelligence involved in understanding oneself. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice brings together previously published and original work by Gardner and his colleagues at Project Zero.

howard gardner multiple intelligences interpersonalFrames of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences - Howard Gardner

The author demonstrates that there exist many human "intelligences", common to all cultures - each with its own pattern of development and brain activity, and each different in kind from the others. These potentials include linguistic, musical and logical/mathematical capacities, as well as spatial and bodily intelligences, and the ability to arrive at an emotional and mental sense of self and other people. Rather than reducing an individual's potential to a single score on an IQ test, it is the fostering and education of all these intelligences that should be our concern.

howard gardner intelligence reframedIntelligence Reframed - Howard Gardner 

A brilliant state-of-the-art report on how the landmark theory of multiple intelligences is radically changing our understanding of education and human development. Now, in Intelligence Reframed, Gardner provides a much-needed state of the art report on the theory. He describes how it has evolved and been revised. He introduces two new intelligences, and argues that the concept of intelligence should be broadened, but not so much that it includes every human faculty and value.

Other Inspiring Breakthrough Multiple Intelligences within this section;

Logical Mathematical
Visual Spatial

Individual Performance Improvement
Team Performance Improvement
Accelerated Learning
Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP)
Business Growth Performance


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